Extracellular vesicles are small extracellular membrane-enclosed vesicles with a lipid bilayer membrane containing different lipids, metabolites, proteins, RNAs and DNAs. Although discovered as early as 1967 and considered to be cell debris they were later recognized as bioactive mediators in cell-to -cell communication and critical players in both physiological and pathological conditions in the 1990s.Read more
Coronaviruses (CoVs), within the order Nidovirales, are enveloped, single-strand, positive-sense RNA viruses with a large genome of approximately 30 kbp in length. A human infecting coronavirus (viral pneumonia) initially known as 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) was found in the city of Wuhan, Hubei province of China in December 2019. This virus is now named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), with the resulting disease known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
Coronaviruses contain at least four structural proteins: Spike (S) protein, envelope (E) protein, membrane (M) protein, and nucleocapsid (N) protein.Read more