Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major health problem in the world and many studies have been done in this topic. Nowadays we can certainly say, that pathogenesis of T2DM is connected to obesity-associated insulin resistance and dysglycemia. Despite the fact, that individuals of South Asian descent have a higher risk of developing T2DM for a given body mass index (BMI) compared to Caucasians, majority of the published data was obtained by studying western populations. Moreover, in South Asians, different mechanisms could operate in the pathogenesis of these processes. The pressure for new data in this field is even higher because of recent escalation of obesity in this region.